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Health Information Technology: APA

LibGuide to assist Hinds Community College Health Information Technology Students and Faculty with finding resources.

Online Citation Tools: A Note

While Microsoft Word, certain databases and other on-line resources such as EasyBib offer automatic MLA/APA formatting tools for citations, these systems are not always accurate or complete and do not allow for formatting of all pertinent information.

If you use these online tools it is important to double check the accuracy of your results against a style sheet such as those linked to in this guide.

Citation Links

Citation Help

In-text Citations

In-text citations in APA format follow the author-date method. These citations include the author’s last name and year of publication for the source. For example, (Nather, 2015) would be used to cite the source within the text, and a complete citation for the source should appear on the reference page at the end of the paper.

Short Quotes

For direct quotes, you need to include the author, year of publication and page number for the source. You may use the author’s last name followed by the year of publication in parentheses to introduce the quote. The quote is then followed by the page number.

                Nather (2015) states “everyone needs to do research” (p. 3).

If the author’s name is not used as an introduction to the quote, then the author’s name, year of publication and page number are to be placed in parentheses at the end of the quote.

                “Everyone needs to do research” (Nather, 2015, p. 3).

Long Quotes

Direct quotes that are more 40 words should be typed in a free-standing block without quotation marks. The entire quote should be indented ½ inch from the left margin (the same place you would begin a new paragraph). The citation will come after the closing punctuation mark.

                Nather’s (2016) introduction states:

So, why research? Some say they want to leave a legacy behind for themselves through their research, while others argue that research is conducted for the betterment of mankind. For me, why I want to do research is motivated by a highly person reason. (p. 4)

Summary or paraphrase

When you summarize or paraphrase an idea from another source, your in-text reference only requires the author and year of publication. Although the APA guidelines encourage the inclusion of the page number as well this is not required.

                Nather (2016) states that the reasons for research vary from creating a legacy to improving lives.

                People’s reasons for research vary from creating a legacy to improving lives. (Nather, 2016)


-Titles should be listed in alphabetical order, by the first author's last name. If there is no author, then by the title or the organization. 

-Format each citation with a hanging indent. 

-If there are more than 20 authors, use ellipsis points (...) between the 19th author's name and the last author's name. 

-For 6 authors. use the ampersand (&) between the 5th author and 6th author. 

-Abbreviate "Editor" to "Ed." and "Editors" to "Eds."

-Article titles should appear in plain text. Do not italicize or surround them with quotation marks. 

-For titles of books and articles, CAPITALIZE the first letter of the first word, proper nouns and the first word in the subtitle. 

-Journal titles are to be italicized and Capitalize all major words in the journal's title. 

-Italicize titles of books.

-Include the digital object identifier (DOI) whenever it is present. Do not put a period after the DOI's last number or letter. 

APA Style

APA Style Reference Page

Bibliography Versus Reference List

In APA Style, include a reference list rather than a bibliography with your paper.

What’s the difference? A reference list consists of all sources cited in the text of a paper, listed alphabetically by author’s surname. A bibliography, however, may include resources that were consulted but not cited in the text as well as an annotated description of each one. Bibliographies may be organized chronologically, or by subject, rather than alphabetically.

If you have been given an assignment that asks for a bibliography, consult your instructor for more specifics about the required format.


APA Style

**Note the boxes titled APA Style are links from